memory care

The Four Best Practices for Effective Memory Care

Every year, at least 10 million people around the world are diagnosed with dementia. The life-changing and debilitating condition that affects memory, cognition and even the ability to perform simple activities is affecting more than 50 million people. Plus, with the elderly population growing, these numbers are expected to increase immensely over the next few years.


Memory care is now one of the most important pillars of the medical world. The practice that deals with patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s and other dementias focus on improving their quality of life by slowing down disease progression, preserving memory and offering independence through the following four best practices.




1. Promoting proper nutrition


Studies have proven that a lack of proper nutrition and the inadequate consumption of food and fluids could easily speed up the progression of the disease due the decline in the patient’s overall wellbeing.


Therefore, a good memory care facility always conducts screenings to assess the patient’s nutritional needs for the healthcare team to plan the appropriate care depending on the patient’s life circumstances and preferences. Mealtimes are also used as a form of socialization where patients can interact with other people while enjoying their food.


2. Creating meaningful activities


Throughout the day, patients are given the opportunity to enjoy different activities that will not only allow them to functional normally but also help deal with their condition more effectively.


Memory care staff always promotes independence by allowing patients to make their own bed, tidy their room, water the plants, and perform self-care activities so they still feel a sense of purpose despite their inability to remember things. This will make them feel more empowered as they tackle their disease and ensure that they continue to live a good quality of life.


3. Ensuring socialization


Socialization and interaction are very important parts of memory care because they help patients keep the functional abilities, promote better self-esteem and enhance their quality of life.


Healthcare teams usually plan activities that allow patients to enjoy great conversations and share experiences with their carers, family members and the staff. But memory care also respects the need for space and alone time of some of its patients.


4. Keeping things simple and attainable


Patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s or dementia have difficulties coping up with their condition and it can get extremely frustrating for them to not be able to do activities that they used to be capable of.


That is why it’s very important for memory care staff to keep routines, schedules and approaches as simple as possible. This means focusing only on what makes an activity successful and getting rid of non-essential things that can only cause worry and frustration.


As the medical world still works on finding a cure for dementia and Alzheimer’s, memory care plays a very crucial role in ensuring that everyone suffering from these medical conditions are not only properly cared for but also allowed to enjoy the best years of their life despite the limitations posed by the disease.


Fallbrook Assisted Living is proud to offer its services to Fremont, NE, and surrounding areas and cities: Arlington, Cedar Bluffs, Ames Nickerson, Fontanelle, Arlington, Leshara, Colon, and Hooper

technology - nursing homes and assisted living facilities

How Technology Helps in Nursing Homes and Assisted Living Facilities

Nursing homes and assisted living facilities to benefit from technological innovations to aid in the care and management of records for patients. Here are just a few of the notable contributions of technology to health care.


IT Systems

Generally, information technology will be able to address the challenges in-home health care, including the large geographic distances, making resources more costly for rural patients. Such would include advances in social networking tools, telecommunication, and Web solutions to support health care delivery and education.


Information technology can be introduced in nursing homes in a variety of ways including the following functions.

Active monitoring and management

  • Home-based disease management through telehealth applications
  • Web-based communities for patients in-home care
  • Personal health care records

Passive monitoring and management

  • Smart homes
  • Robotic applications


Tele-Health Applications

This type of technology offers a platform for supporting disease management for patients in nursing homes diagnosed with chronic conditions as well as their families.


Web-Based Communities

The Internet also supports a consumer-centric model and enables the creation of networks for the community, home care patients diagnosed with the same condition, families or other informal caregivers, and the public in general.

That is, in addition to the Web-based applications focused on the institution-centric approach and connect home care patients to health care providers. These networks are referred to as virtual communities that share the same goal, interest, needs, or activity.


Personal Health Records

This is defined as the electronic record of health-related information of an individual that conforms to the recognized interoperability standards of the country. A personal health record is a tool used for sharing health information, helping transform patients into better-educated health care consumers, and increasing health understanding.


Smart Homes

A house equipped with technology as an integral part of the infrastructure is considered a smart home intended to facilitate the monitoring of residents and increasing the quality of life. This technology does not require operation or training by the resident, but standalone units are used to be controlled by the end-user.

The advancement of technology has prompted the development of smart home applications around the world. One example is the development of Smart Medical Home, a highly controlled environment that involves biosensors, infrared sensors, and video cameras.


Robotic Applications

It is a method that employs artificial intelligence principles, and sometimes, with anthropomorphic features used in the clinical setting, mostly in experimental mode surgery, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty, and cystectomy.

One of the applications considered is the robotic dog, which is used as part of animal-assisted therapy in treating loneliness. Another example is the therapeutic robotic harp seal designed to create a calming sensation.


Final Thoughts

There are clear advantages to integrating IT in nursing homes or home care facilities. Such would include easy and efficient communication amid the geographic distance. Moreover, it enables the generation of new types of data without the need for health care providers to be physically present in the residential setting.


Fallbrook Assisted Living is proud to offer its services to Fremont, NE, and surrounding areas and cities: Arlington, Cedar Bluffs, Ames Nickerson, Fontanelle, Arlington, Leshara, Colon, and Hooper

loved one - alzheimer's care facilities

Ways to Keep Your Loved One Happy in Alzheimer’s Care Facilities

A loved one with Alzheimer’s disease should be mentally and physically stimulated. In fact, even if his or her mental or physical abilities have declined due to dementia, it doesn’t mean that enrichment stops.

One of the things you can do is to get involved to keep your loved one happy as they start to live in a nursing home. Thus, you need to help seniors as they move into Alzheimer’s care facilities.


Ideas to Keep Your Senior Happy In a Nursing Home


Make The Transition Easy

Needless to say, moving into a nursing home for seniors can be stressful even for the family. So you need to help them by ensuring that the move will be smooth. Some of them might feel that they are still capable to care for themselves, causing them to think there is no need to leave home.

    • Explain to them that going to move into a nursing home will be helpful for them
    • Bring furniture, pictures, and objects to make their room feel like they are at just at home
    • It would greatly help if the spouse can move in with them


Tending To Relationships

Seniors will have the opportunity to build new relationships in nursing homes, as it strengthens old ones. This can improve their health as it promotes happiness. This is because strong relationships can make people happy to prevent physical and mental decline as time passes by.

    • Encourage them to interact with others in Alzheimer’s care facilities
    • Visit as often as possible
    • It would help if friends or neighbors can visit them
    • Any questions or concerns must be addressed to the staff


Participate in Activities

Seniors can build relationships with others easily through activities. In fact, regular activities can help them stay in shape, both physically and mentally. Most Alzheimer’s care facilities host activities for the whole day. So, even those suffering from disabilities or illnesses can participate in some activities that are fit for them.

    • Listening to music
    • Petting a cat or dog
    • Reading
    • Walking
    • Playing bingo


Maintaining Health Care

If a senior will live in a nursing home, there is a possibility that he or she has an illness or disability that will need long-term care. Thus, you can keep them happy and healthy.

    • Regularly visit your loved one and monitor the health status
    • Voice out your concerns to the staff
    • Take necessary action if things will not improve

It is important to note that happiness and quality of life are synonymous. So seniors can greatly benefit from the help of the staff of the nursing home, other residents, and more specifically the family members.

The next time you want to visit a loved one in Alzheimer’s care facilities, be guided that they too need regular checking so that they will remain safe and content. Take note that the best nursing homes will pay attention to the concerns of their residents so that everybody is satisfied.


Fallbrook Assisted Living is proud to offer its services to Fremont, NE, and surrounding areas and cities: Arlington, Cedar Bluffs, Ames Nickerson, Fontanelle, Arlington, Leshara, Colon, and Hooper

needs assessment - senior housing

Everything You Need to Know About Needs Assessment for Senior Housing

As a family member grows older, the need for senior housing becomes inevitable at some point. It is to not only make it easier for the family members who already bear the burden of caring for them. But also to make sure that they get the best quality of care from professionals who specialize in elderly care. But before they can move into this type of living community, a needs assessment should be done by the staff first to know the elderly’s physical, cognitive, and even emotional health.

Most senior housing facilities use an evaluation packet or checklist that will allow healthcare staff to determine the level of care needed by a senior who will be under their care.

Some facilities use a “point system” to rank seniors while others just go through a comprehensive list of questions and base their decisions from the answers.

But in general, healthcare staff will gauge the following areas to make sure that an elderly person gets the care that they need while in senior housing:


Level of orientation

In this stage, the senior is gauged according to his level of orientation that will determine if he is at risk for wandering, forgetting things, and getting injured due to memory loss and other cognitive problems that may be related to his current health condition.

The staff specifically assesses for awareness to people, places and time, forgetfulness and occasional confusion, general disorientation and poor judgment, unsafe behaviors, and cognitive deficits.


Fall risk

A lot of seniors are victims of accidental falls that may leave them debilitated or worse, dead. This is why it’s very important to determine an elderly’s risk for falls by assessing if he has experienced a fall at home and if he had more than one accident in the last three months.


Bathroom independence

The bathroom can be one of the biggest challenges for seniors, especially those who have physical limitations that make it more dangerous for them to take a bath or empty their bowel and bladder alone.

In a senior housing community, seniors are given the assistance that they require when using the bathroom. It is the reason why they are assessed for their level of independence when it comes to emptying their bowel and bladder.

Or if they require prompting to go to the bathroom, or if they have problems with incontinence, if they need to use assistive devices and protective garments or if they need constant assistance when going to the bathroom are some of the factors to be considered.


The takeaway

Every senior housing community has the ultimate goal of offering the best possible care to seniors depending on their needs assessment.

This is why a needs assessment is the first step towards moving to senior housing and probably the most important part because it allows healthcare staff to really assess their future residents and set proper expectations for family members.

Doing so will make them enjoy an excellent quality of life by offering them services that fit their exact needs and their current health conditions.


Fallbrook Assisted Living is proud to offer its services to Fremont, NE, and surrounding areas and cities: Arlington, Cedar Bluffs, Ames Nickerson, Fontanelle, Arlington, Leshara, Colon, and Hooper

memory assisted living - elderly population

The Ways Assisted Living Can Promote Memory Improvement in the Elderly

The elderly population is set to overtake the younger generation in the coming years. This also means that more people will be put into memory assisted living to allow them to live a better quality of life as they deal with health conditions that are related to growing old. Memory loss is one of the most common health conditions suffered by the elderly population.

But memory assisted living facilities can sometimes help improve and preserve the memory of residents through these ways:


Adequate sleep

It’s not uncommon for older people to have difficulty sleeping or getting enough hours of sleep each day, especially with the different changes in their body.

But research from the National Sleep Foundation revealed that adequate sleep trigger brain changes that help strengthen memories and move them from the short-term to the long-term.

Memory assisted living facilities to offer the right environment for residents to sleep comfortably for at least 6 to 9 hours every day to strengthen their brain cells and preserve their memory.


Memory training

With the goal of helping the elderly keep their memory healthy for the longest time possible, several organizations like the Alzheimer’s Association and the American Association of Retired Persons have developed several directives related to memory training.

These include lifestyle modifications in diet and nutrition, physical activities, and cognitive training that allow for the elderly in memory assisted living to keep their memory active.


Proper nutrition

A study by the Harvard Health Publications revealed that foods that are highly saturated in fat increase bad cholesterol in the elderly that clog the arteries and cause significant damage to the brain.

This is why memory assisted living facilities don’t only provide the right living environment for residents but also ensure that they get adequate nutrition that’s rich in mono- and polyunsaturated fats to increase good cholesterol levels and keep the brain healthy for a longer time.


Mental exercises

One of the biggest benefits of sending an elderly loved one to memory assisted living is the fact that they can be given mental exercises like learning a new skill or practicing a hobby that has been proven to improve memory and cognitive function.

Residents can also stay social with their peers and they are allowed to spend time with family members to maintain and improve their mental health. According to research, a simple 10-minute interaction every day can already help with a senior’s memory in a lot of ways.


Quality of Life

Finally, being in memory assisted living allows residents to enjoy an excellent quality of life that would otherwise be difficult for them if they are staying at home with the limitations that they have because of their condition.

This will help them to not only keep their memories but also build new experiences as they enjoy independence without having to worry about daily chores or access to healthcare whenever they need it.


Fallbrook Assisted Living is proud to offer its services to Fremont, NE, and surrounding areas and cities: Arlington, Cedar Bluffs, Ames Nickerson, Fontanelle, Arlington, Leshara, Colon, and Hooper

air pollution and Alzheimer's

Can Air Pollution Cause Damage to the Brain?

Air pollution continues to be an unseen crisis around the world. According to new data from the World Health Organization, 9 out of 10 people breathe air containing high levels of pollutants and at least 7 million people around the world die every year due to exposure from polluted air.

But just as we thought that we’ve already seen the worst effects of air pollution, a new study suggests that it could also cause damages to the brain and even affect neurodevelopment.

This raises cause for concerns, especially for older people in Alzheimer’s care facilities who are already suffering from significant brain damage due to their condition.


The Study

Lilian Calderon-Garciduenas, a neuropathologist from the University of Montana studied human brain samples from autopsy examinations in Mexico City as part of her research on the effects of the environment on neural development.

After gathering the samples herself, Calderon-Garciduenas’ colleagues prepared the slides where she identified the proteins amyloid-beta and hyperphosphorylated tau that are both linked to Alzheimer’s disease in all 203 brain samples she studied.

But what raised more concern was the fact that these brains belonged not only to seniors who likely spent time in Alzheimer’s care facilities but also in young adults, teenagers, and even children. She said that the youngest of the subjects was just 11 months old.

Calderon-Garciduenas was devastated and she knew that Mexico City’s notoriously polluted air has something to do with this discovery. What used to only be a theory that air pollution causes damage to the brain can now be backed up by research.


The Damage to Neurodevelopment

Although Alzheimer’s disease is common in older people, younger patients who suffer from it raise concerns for health experts. In fact, a report released by the WHO revealed that 93% of children under 15 years old breathe enough polluted air to jeopardize their health. The organization further reported that in 2016, at least 600,000 children died from acute lower respiratory infections caused by polluted air.

But the worst news of all is the fact that bad air has some really bad effects on the brains of young children.

A WHO research wrote: “Exposure to air pollutants can negatively affect neurodevelopment, resulting in lower cognitive test outcomes and the development of behavioral disorders such as autism spectrum and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. Research suggests that both prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution represent threats to neurodevelopment.”

This was also supported by a study conducted among 783 children in the Netherlands, which revealed that exposure to PM2.5, small particulate air pollution was “found to cause structural alterations to the cerebral cortex” by the time these children were aged 6 to 10 years old.


The Takeaway

Air pollution is causing serious damage to the brains of both the young and older generations. This should already raise some serious alarms in governments to do something to at least reduce air pollution to secure a better future for everyone.


Fallbrook Assisted Living is proud to offer its services to Fremont, NE, and surrounding areas and cities: Arlington, Cedar Bluffs, Ames Nickerson, Fontanelle, Arlington, Leshara, Colon, and Hooper

nursing homes

4 Steps to Preventing Infection in Nursing Homes

The United States is expecting its highest senior population rate as more than 76 million baby boomers enter into retirement. This also means that nursing homes will have to accommodate more residents and that could have a huge impact on the quality of care being given in these facilities, especially in preventing infections.

In the effort to keep the home-like environment in nursing homes, four practices should be implemented to make sure that residents are safe from infections and given the best quality of life possible:


Proper Hand Hygiene

Although healthcare workers in nursing homes want to be seen more like friends, they still need to implement strict measures, especially in terms of maintaining good hygiene within themselves and the residents.

Hand hygiene is particularly important for residents before meals and healthcare workers should also practice hand hygiene and wear appropriate gloves when taking care of residents since they’re more vulnerable to infections.

Protective gowns and gloves should also be kept in the rooms of high-risk residents to keep healthcare workers safe while taking care of them.


Proper Wound Care

If residents have any open sores or wounds, they need to be cared for properly to avoid infections. Healthcare workers have the responsibility to make sure that their residents don’t incur any injuries or sores, but if they do, they need to be cleaned and covered with a bandage.

Wounds also need to be checked regularly and proper medications should be given for pain and to prevent infection.


Proper Isolation

In a regular hospital setting, anyone with an infected wound or uncontrolled secretions would instantly be isolated in a private room and kept from away from other patients.

But in nursing homes, isolating residents could lead to anxiety, depression, and social stigma. This is why healthcare workers need to implement measures that keep residents with infections separated from other residents without fully isolating them or making them feel like they’re in a hospital.

Personal protective equipment like gloves, masks, and gowns should also be readily available for healthcare workers to use in caring for residents.

In the case of an outbreak, however, strict policies need to be implemented to protect the entire community even if it means isolating residents temporarily.


Proper Preventive Measures

The most common mode of transmission for infection in nursing homes is through the hands of healthcare workers who spread pathogens as they transfer from one resident to the other.

This is why it’s very important for these facilities to have proper preventive measures among healthcare workers, especially in caring for vulnerable residents who have wounds, infections, and antibiotic-resistance.

As more Americans enter their retirement years, the need to improve the quality of service in nursing homes also becomes more important.

Aside from these four important practices, other measures specific to every institution should be implemented to make sure that all residents are not only safe from infections but also other health conditions that could affect their quality of life.


Fallbrook Assisted Living is proud to offer its services to Fremont, NE, and surrounding areas and cities: Arlington, Cedar Bluffs, Ames Nickerson, Fontanelle, Arlington, Leshara, Colon, and Hooper

memory care assisted living

Memory Care Assisted Living: Low-Income Options for Seniors

The baby booming generation is already growing old, so it’s no surprise that the demand for memory care assisted living is set to grow rapidly over the next few years. But there’s also the reality that memory care can be very expensive.

In fact, some data from Genworth’s eldercare cost figures revealed that the median cost of memory care was about $5,000 to $5,250 in 2019. That’s at least $1,000 per month, which is quite pricey even for high-income individuals.

Since there are many low-income seniors in the country, there are already several options in terms of memory care assisted living to give these individuals the best quality of life as they deal with Alzheimer’s and dementia:


Mild to moderate memory loss

Seniors with mild to moderate memory loss are usually cared for in an apartment-style assisted living facility where there are trained nurses and health aides to help them with activities of daily living.

Meal programs are also offered for residents so they don’t have to worry about cooking their own food. This type of memory care has the goal of giving residents a safe environment where they can be as independent as possible.

These facilities also offer assistance for residents who may tend to wander or those with maintenance medications.


Mid to late-stage dementia

For individuals who are already in the mid to late stages of dementia or Alzheimer’s disease, a skilled nursing facility would be the best option. This is also true for seniors who have other health problems that require skilled nursing care.

Skilled nursing facilities or more commonly known as nursing homes offer more supervisory care for residents as compared to assisted living facilities and the living arrangement is also different.

Residents in this type of memory care assisted living can either stay in a shared or private room, but they will have access to lounge areas, dining rooms and activity areas where they can socialize with other people in a safe environment. A skilled nursing facility also has on-site staff 24/7 to attend to the needs of residents.

Aside from doctors and nurses, some facilities may also have psychiatrists who are trained in working with Alzheimer’s patients to help them with therapies and adherence to medication so they can have a better quality of life.

Since these options still require payment, low-income seniors who can’t afford to stay in these types of memory care assisted living to have the option to remain in their home and just hire a part-time or full-time caregiver.

Seniors may also apply for Medicare and Medicaid assistance in some assisted living facilities to help them with expenses. Although expenses will not be fully covered, they can help ease the financial burden to the family of low-income seniors while still giving them the best quality of life possible as they go through their journey.


Fallbrook Assisted Living is proud to offer its services to Fremont, NE, and surrounding areas and cities: Arlington, Cedar Bluffs, Ames Nickerson, Fontanelle, Arlington, Leshara, Colon, and Hooper

Alzheimer's screening

Getting Screened for Alzheimer’s and Dementia: Why it’s Necessary

The numbers say it all. Every 65 seconds, an American develops Alzheimer’s disease that by 2050, it is expected that there will be more than 14 million people in the United States with this condition, most of which will be living in facilities for Alzheimer’s.

It is also the 6th leading cause of death in the country with 1 in 3 seniors dying from Alzheimer’s or dementia.

With Alzheimer’s disease having no clear cause or any known treatments yet, getting screened will allow for early detection of the disease so that lifestyle changes could and other modalities can be implemented to maintain your quality of life.


Why should you get Screened for Alzheimer’s?

Many people living in facilities for Alzheimer’s knew about their condition when it was already in its advanced stages. Some would also say that there’s no point in early screening when Alzheimer’s is untreatable. But getting an early diagnosis can actually be beneficial in a lot of ways.

For one, you’ll be able to change the way you live so you can preserve cognitive function and slow down the progress of the disease.

By eliminating many of the risk factors for Alzheimer’s, you’ll be able to keep yourself healthy for a longer time than not knowing that you’re already aggravating your condition with bad lifestyle choices.

Early screening also gives you a better chance at benefiting from different treatment options for Alzheimer’s and you can even participate in clinical trials. This means that you’ll be able to try medications, interventions, and modalities that could help you get a better prognosis from the disease.


When should you get Screened for Alzheimer’s?

Loss of memory is usually the first sign of Alzheimer’s disease, but it can also be a symptom of other medical conditions that need to be ruled out. So if you begin to notice that you’re becoming forgetful, it’s best to get screened to see if your memory loss is related to Alzheimer’s or any form of dementia.

You should also get yourself screened if you have family members with Alzheimer’s or dementia, especially your grandparents, parents, or siblings who got diagnosed with the disease in their 30s or 40s.

Also, remember that women are more likely to develop Alzheimer’s than men, so you should considering screening if you’re a woman in your 60s.


Why go through Screening when Alzheimer’s is not Curable?

Finally, some people would disagree about early screening saying that it’s useless since Alzheimer’s is not curable, after all. But if you think about it, getting screened will give you more time to come to terms with having the condition and prepare yourself and your family for the journey ahead.

While you’re still able, you can make all the necessary changes to keep yourself healthy for a longer time and slow down the disease process. You’ll also be able to increase your quality of life and be as independent as possible while you’re at it.


Fallbrook Assisted Living is proud to offer its services to Fremont, NE, and surrounding areas and cities: Arlington, Cedar Bluffs, Ames Nickerson, Fontanelle, Arlington, Leshara, Colon, and Hooper

early-onset Alzheimer's disease

Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease: When Symptoms Appear Before 65

Alzheimer’s disease is known to affect the elderly population. But in some rare instances, early-onset Alzheimer’s can occur in some people and it could mean a lifetime of a burden on the individual, his family, and of course, the finances.

At some point, the need for memory assisted living also becomes inevitable. But what exactly is early-onset Alzheimer’s disease and how can one cope from it?


Understanding early-onset Alzheimer’s and its causes

Early-onset Alzheimer’s disease is a rare form of dementia that affects people under the age of 65. It is very uncommon that only 5% of people diagnosed with the disease develop symptoms in middle age or between 30 and 60 years old.

Individuals affected with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease usually have its most common form, which is called sporadic Alzheimer’s. According to experts, this type of Alzheimer’s is caused by genetics, although still yet to find out why it affects people at a younger age.

Some patients are also diagnosed with familial Alzheimer’s disease, which means that they have a parent or grandparent that was diagnosed with the same type of early-onset Alzheimer’s.

Studies suggest that familial Alzheimer’s is linked to three types of genes: APP, PSEN 1, and PSEN 2. They are different from APOE, which is a gene that is said to increase your risk of being diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease.

These three genes together can only be found in less than 1% of Alzheimer’s patients but they are present in 11% of those with early-onset Alzheimer’s.

This is why some people choose to undergo genetic testing to see if there are any mutations of these genes, but genetic counseling should also be done first to make sure that the patient knows about the pros and cons of genetic testing.


Coping with early-onset Alzheimer’s

Being diagnosed with Alzheimer’s at an early age can be a huge blow to anyone, especially with the possibility of discrimination because some people won’t believe that they have the disease. This is why it’s very important to give these individuals all the care and support they need to get through.

For instance, an individual may still be able to work, but he may need to switch to a position that will allow him to function with his growing limitations.

Some employers may even reduce the number of hours that the individual needs to work or even allow him to take time off to adjust more to his new condition and seek the treatments that he needs.

Finally, financial challenges should be discussed between the family, especially when the time comes that the individual would be required to go to memory assisted living.

Exploring benefits provided by Medicare or Medicaid, organizing financial documents ahead, discussing the possibility of early retirement, and talking with a financial planner will help ease the financial burden of the disease while making sure that the patient is given the best quality of life possible.


Fallbrook Assisted Living is proud to offer its services to Fremont, NE, and surrounding areas and cities: Arlington, Cedar Bluffs, Ames Nickerson, Fontanelle, Arlington, Leshara, Colon, and Hooper